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高考代词练习题,英语高考代词总结

tamoadmin 2024-06-11 人已围观

简介1.初中英语代词的用法归纳2.定语从句中只能用which的习题(要详细解释)!!!!3.求英语高考题精选15道4.定语从句中where的用法5.定语从句确定关系词的方法: 1、从句成分完整,就用关系副词 2、从句成分不完整,就用关系代词。6.高中宾语从句详细用法和高考宾语从句专项练习高考英语试题中定语从句与强调句陷阱题详解2008-12-15 22:24:06 来源:网络 作者:佚名 大 中 小

1.初中英语代词的用法归纳

2.定语从句中只能用which的习题(要详细解释)!!!!

3.求英语高考题精选15道

4.定语从句中where的用法

5.定语从句确定关系词的方法: 1、从句成分完整,就用关系副词 2、从句成分不完整,就用关系代词。

6.高中宾语从句详细用法和高考宾语从句专项练习

高考代词练习题,英语高考代词总结

高考英语试题中定语从句与强调句陷阱题详解

2008-12-15 22:24:06 来源:网络 作者:佚名 大 中 小 点击:126 次 评论:次

1. The factory was built in a secret place, around _________ high mountains.

A. which was B. it was C. which were D. them were

陷阱容易误选A或B,将A、B中的 which 和 it 误认为是其后句子的主语。

分析最佳答案是C,around which were high mountains 是一个由“介词+which”引出的非限制性定语从句,而在该从句中,主语是 high mountains,around which 是表语,所以句子谓语应用复数were,而不是用单数 was。请做以下类例题目(答案均为C):

(1) Yesterday we visited a modern hospital, around _________ some fruit shops.

A. which is B. it is C. which are D. them are

(2) The murder happened in an old building, beside _________ the city police station.

A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

(3) Next month we’ll move to a new building, next to _________ a nice restaurants where we can have Chinese food.

A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, “Is there a hospital around _________ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand”

A. that B. which C. where D. what

陷阱容易误选 B,认为 around 是介词,选 which 用以代替前面的名词 hospital,在此用作介词 around 的宾语。

分析最佳答案为C。以上语法分析并不算错,但问题是,照此分析,此句的意思即为:有没有这样一个医院,我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情理,因为人们通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介词,而是副词,意为“在附近”;其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤?

3. David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like.

A. that B. who C. as D. whom

陷阱此题容易误选A,许多同学一看到题干中的such,再联系到选项中的 that,便认为这是考查such … that …句式。况且,这样理解意思也还通顺。

分析最佳答案为C,不是A,因为在such … that … (如此……以至……)结构中,that 引导的是结果状语从句,并且 that 在从句中不充当句子成分,若在上句填入 such … that …,句末的动词 like 缺宾语。选C的理由如下:as 用作关系代词,用以引导定语从句,修饰其前的名词 boy,同时 as 在定语从句中用作动词 like 的宾语,句意为“所有老师都喜欢的一位好男孩”。有的同学可能还会问,假若选A,能否将其后的 that 视为引导定语从句的关系代词呢?不能,因为当先行词受到 such 的修饰时,其后的定语从句应用关系代词 as 来引导,而不用that。比较下面一题,答案为A,因为 like 后有自己的宾语 him:

David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like him.

A. that B. who C. as D. whom

请再做以下试题(答案选D):

It was not such a good dinner _________ she had promised us.

A. like B. that C. which D. as 4. The buses, most of _________ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

陷阱容易误选 C,用 them 代指 the buses。

分析最佳答案是D。most of which were already full 为非限制性定语从句,修饰 the buses。类似地,以下各题也选D:

(1) His house, for _________ he paid $10, 000, is now worth $50, 000.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

(2) Ashdown forest, through _________ we’ll be driving, isn’t a forest any longer.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

(3) This I did at nine o’clock, after _________ I sat reading the paper.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

类似地,以下各题选 whom,不选 them:

(4) George, with _________ I played tennis on Sundays, was a warm-hearted person.

A. that B. him C. them D. whom

(5) Her sons, both of _________ work abroad, will come back home this summer.

A. that B. who C. them D. whom

(6) I met the fruit-pickers, several of _________ were still university students.

A. that B. who C. them D. whom

5. He had a lot of friends, only a few of _________ invited to his wedding.

A. whom B. them C. which D. who

陷阱容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

分析最佳答案是B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选A。比较:

(1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选B,none of them carried out in their work 是独立主格结构,其中的 carried out 为过去分词

(2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ were carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定语从句,注意与上例比较句中多了一个助动词were。

(3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _________ were carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选B,由于两句之间增加了一个并列连词but,使得该句成了一个并列句。

6. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

陷阱容易误选B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

分析最佳答案是A。与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。比较以下相似题:

(1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were seated together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents were seated together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为其后有完整的谓语 were seated。

(2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _________ parents were seated together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选A。因为句中有并列连词and,整个句子为并列句。

(3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sitting together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选A。their parents sitting together joking 为独立主格结构。

(4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sat together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents sat together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 sat。

(5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were sitting together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents were sitting together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 were sitting。

7. If the man is only interested in your looks, _________ just shows how shallow he is.

A. as B. which C. what D. that

陷阱容易误选A或B,误这是非限制性定语从句。

分析正确答案为D,注意逗号前是一个条件状语从句,逗号后是该状语从句的主句,that 在此代表前文所述的情况,用作主句的主语。类似地,下面几道题也选 that,而不选 which:

(1) If you promise to go with us, _________ will be OK.

A. as B. which C. and it D. that

(2) If you want a double room, _________ will cost another £15.

A. as B. which C. what D. that

(3) Whether you go or not, _________ is quite all right with me.

A. that B. which C. and it D. so

(4) When I say two hours, _________ includes time for eating.

A. as B. which C. what D. that

初中英语代词的用法归纳

重点难点梳理

1.考点诠释

考纲要求:阅读浅易的古代诗文,理解常见文言实词在文中的含义。“常见”,就是指在浅易的古代诗文中出现的频率较高,在文章中比较重要。“在文中的含义”是指文言实词在具体语言环境中的含义。“文言实词”通常包括名词、动词、形容词、量词,考试中涉及较多的就是这几类词,偶尔也会考到副词、代词。文言实词考查范围主要有一词多义、词类活用、古今异义、偏义复词、通假字等。

2.考查重点、难点

试题所选的古诗文材料一般都来自课外,但是所考查的实词却离不开课本,往往是平时学习中经常接触的、比较重要的实词,且往往是常见实词的不常见义项。从2007、2008两年高考所考的实词来看,都是使用频率较高的常用词,也是教材中经常出现的词,体现了高考的“试题在课外,知识点在课内”的特点。题型以客观选择题为主,间有主观题。难点主要有:难以辨别的一词多义,容易混淆的古今异义词,不易看出意义临时变化的词类活用。由于文言实词的多义性,要确定某个实词在特定语言环境中的意思,需要具备一定的理解能力和判断能力,具备由课内向课外的知识迁移能力。

金题透视

1.对下列句子中加横线词的解释,不正确的一项是()(2008年高考全国卷Ⅰ)

A.部使者檄刚抚定檄:文告

B.刚遣长子迟喻贼喻:开导

C.愿稽旧制,选精锐为亲兵稽:查考

D.以杜金人窥伺之意杜:制止

解析该题考查文言实词的一词多义,从所选的几个词来看,均为“常见”。A项“檄”作为名词,当“文告、文书”解,古文中比比皆是,“檄文”更是我们所熟悉的词,而其作为动词解释的时候却不太常见。该题正是从这个角度设题,“檄”在这里做动词,意思为“用檄文征召、声讨”,引申为“下令”。其实,如果读过《儒林外史》,“按察司行文檄了知县去”一句中的“檄”就是“用檄文征召、声讨”意思。还有鲁迅《坟·摩罗诗力说》中“檄其人士,于政治宗教,皆欲有所更革,顾终不成”也是这个意思。其余几句,“喻”当“开导”讲,同“谕”,有“晓谕”一词佐证;“稽”当“查考”讲,有“稽查”一词佐证;“杜”当“制止”讲,有“杜绝”一词佐证,再根据上下文词义推断可知,这几项的解释均正确。

答案A

2.对下列句子中加横线词语的解释,不正确的一项是()(2008年高考山东卷)

A.隐蓄甘脆饵诚饵:给……吃

B.值大风雨,避身岩下值:遇到

C.兄故弱,恶能多樵恶:不

D.汗交颐不少休颐:脸颊

解析联系A中的“饵”在句中是名词作动词,“饵”作名词“饵料”常用,但在此句中,作名词解释不通,结合语境推断,可知这个解释是准确的。B中“值”是“逢着”、“遇到”,如:“值河间岁试。”(诸葛亮《出师表》)我们现在还常说“正值……时候”。结合语境可知这个解释也是准确的。C中的“恶”读“wù”,是疑问词,一般作“哪里”、“怎么”用。从原句看,诚是反问,加强语气,对“讷体弱却多樵”的惊讶,“恶”作“不”解释显然是望文生义。D中的“颐”有两个意思,“脸颊”和“保养”,如“颐指气使”、“颐养天年”,根据语境很容易判断只能做名词“脸颊”解释。

答案C

难点攻略

文言文实词是每年高考文言文考查的重点之一,从近几年所考实词看,绝大多数出自课本,所以,熟练掌握120个常用的文言实词是非常必要的,而这些实词中,又需要重点关注那些多义实词古今差别大的义项。在文言文的阅读中,利用汉语词语的构成特点,根据已经学过的相关知识,结合上下文的语境限制和题目的具体要求进行词义的推断。常见的推断方法有:

1.语法推断法。即考查该实词在句中充当什么成分,确定其词性,从而推断其意义。如2008年高考全国卷I“部使者檄刚抚定”中“檄”所在位置应该是动词,因此可以推断解释为“文告”是错误的。再如2008年高考安徽卷“吾用休,社稷计耳”中的“计”应该作动词谓语使用,意思是“为……考虑”,而后面的解释为“计策”,可以推知是错误的。

2.句式推断法。古人行文,好用整齐的句式,如排比句、对偶句、并列结构等,其中位置对称的词语一般词性相同而意义相同相近或相对相反,这样就可以由已知的词性词义推测未知的词性词义。如2008年高考江西卷中“非无贿之患,而无令名之难”一句,为“不是没有……,而是没有……”的句式,下句的“令名”是“美好的名声”,根据“名利双收”的意思,可以推知上句中的“贿”为“利”之意,这也是“贿”一词的本义,而选项中解释为“贿赂”显然是错误的。再如2008年高考广东卷中“周穷振乏,家无余财”一句,“穷、乏”意思相近,可以推知“周、振”意思也相近,均为“救济”之意,显然,选项中解释为“振作”是错误的。

3.语境推断法。一个词一般有多个义项,然而在特定的语言环境中,它的义项只有一个,因此,我们要善于将实词放在特定的语言环境中,根据上下文推断词义。如2008年高考福建卷中“子何绝我之暴也”一句,如脱离语境,“暴”译为“暴躁”也可讲通,如“我有亲父兄,性情暴如雷”中的“暴”就是这个意思。但我们结合上文“至舍,不辞而入,越石父怒而请绝”这一语境知道,越石父因为晏子没有以礼待己,怒而请绝,晏子感到非常突然,才有此问的。再联系我们熟知的“暴病”、“暴富”等常见词义可知,此处“暴”为“突然”之意,整句话的意思是“您为什么突然就要同我绝交呢”。

4.联想推断法。试题中出现的一些实词,想想在哪篇课文中出现过,可联系课文对应文句相应迁移。如2008年高考四川卷中“而郑氏数千指独完”一句,熟悉课文《六国论》的同学马上就会想到“盖失强援,不能独完”中的“完”字,意为“保全”,选项解释为“灭亡”显然是错误的。古汉语以单音词为主,现代汉语以双音词为主。试题中出现的单音词,可以联想双音词来推断,如2008年高考全国卷I中“愿稽旧制,选精锐为亲兵”中的“稽”可以联想“稽查”一词,为“查考”之意;“以杜金人窥伺之意”中的“杜”可以联想“杜绝”一词,为“制止”之意。另外,成语中保留了很多词语的古义,借助平时比较熟悉的成语中的有关词语的含义来推断,也不失为一种方法,如2008年高考安徽卷“休复执论”中的“执”可以联想成语“各执一词”,为“坚持”之意,2008年高考山东卷“汗交颐不少休”中的“颐”可以联想成语“大快朵颐”,为“脸颊”之意。

总之,要做好文言阅读里的实词题,积累是基础,在有一定量积累的前提下,再懂得运用一些方法,才可以有备无患。实际操作中,要注意瞻前顾后,从语境出发,兼顾几种方法,相信你的文言文阅读会取得好成绩。

重点难点题型测试

1.对下列句子中加横线词语的解释,不正确的一项是()

A.其北陵,文王之所辟风雨也辟:同“避”,躲避

B.天下云集响应,赢粮而景从景:同“影”

C.北救赵而西却秦,此五霸之伐也伐:讨伐,征伐

D.真黄山绝胜处胜:优美的

2.对下列句子中加横线词语的解释,正确的一项是()

A.心旷神怡,宠辱偕忘宠辱:偏义复词,屈辱

B.阙然久不报,幸勿为过报:报告

C.齐师败绩,公将驰之驰:追逐

D.至丹以荆卿为计,始速祸焉速:加速

3.写出下列加横线词在句中的意思。

(1)自可断来信,徐徐更谓之()

(2)亦不敢服垢弊以干名()

(3)求,无乃尔是过与()

(4)逝者如斯夫,不舍昼夜()

4.“得”是常见的文言实词,写出下列句中“得”的意思。

(1)所得表众亦极七八万耳()

(2)古人之观于天地、山川、草木、虫鱼、鸟兽,往往有得()

(3)未得与项羽相见()

(4)吾得兄事之()

(5)所识穷乏者得我欤()

(6)得无教我猎虫所耶()

(7)意气扬扬,甚自得也()

(8)积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉()

(9)某亦守法,与公甚相得()(10)此言得之()

阅读下面的文言文,完成5-9题。

刘康祖,彭城吕人也,世居京口。父虔之,轻财好施,位江夏相。康祖便弓马,膂力绝人,以浮荡蒱酒为事。每犯法为郡县所录,辄越屋逾墙,莫之能禽。夜入人家,为有司所围,突围去,莫敢追,因夜还京口,半夕便至。明旦守门诣府州要职,俄而建康移书录之,府州执事者并证康祖其夕在京口,遂得无恙。前后屡被纠劾,文帝以勋臣子每原贷之。后袭封拜员外郎,再坐蒱戏,免官。孝武为豫州刺史,镇历阳,以康祖为征虏中兵参军。既被委任,折节自修。历南平王铄安蛮府司马。

元嘉二十七年,魏太武帝亲率大众攻围汝南,文帝遣诸军救援,康祖总统为前驱。次新蔡,攻破魏军,去悬瓠四十里。太武烧营而还。转左军将军。文帝欲大举北侵,康祖以岁月已晚,请待明年,上不许。其年秋,萧斌、王玄谟、沈庆之等入河,康祖率豫州军出许、洛。玄谟等败归,南平王铄在寿阳,上虑为魏所围,召康祖速反。康祖回军,未至寿阳数十里,会魏永昌王以长安之众八万骑,与康祖相及于尉武。康祖有八千人,乃结车营而进。魏军四面来攻,众分为三,且休且战。康祖率厉将士,无不一当百,魏军死者太半,流血没踝。矢中头而死,于是大败,举营沦覆,免者裁数十人。魏人传康祖首示彭城,面如生。赠益州刺史,谥曰壮。

康祖伯父简之,有志干,为宋武帝所知。帝将谋兴复,收集才力之士,尝再造简之,会有客,不得言。简之悟其意,谓虔之曰:“刘下邳再来,必当有意。既不得语,汝可试往见之。”及虔之至,武帝已克京口。虔之即投义。简之闻之,杀耕牛,会众以赴之。

(选自《南史》卷十七列传第七)

5.对下列句子中横线的词的解释,不正确的一项是()

A.文帝以勋臣子每原贷之贷:宽赦

B.次新蔡,攻破魏军次:驻扎

C.上虑为魏所围虑:担忧

D.为宋武帝所知知:认识

6.对下列句子中加横线的词的解释,正确的一项是()

A.每犯法为郡县所录录:记录

B.明旦守门诣府州要职诣:拜访

C.康祖率厉将士厉:激励

D.去悬瓠四十里去:到

7.下列句子中没有通假字的一项是()

A.召康祖速反B.莫之能禽

C.魏军死者太半D.免者裁数十人

8.下列句子中加横线词不属于古今异义的一项是()

A.遂得无恙B.折节自修。

C.康祖总统为前驱D.收集才力之士

9.“会”字的解释,一般有“①相会、会晤,②必然、一定,③恰巧、正好,④会集、会合”几种解释,请选择合适的解释,将序号填入下列句子后面的括号中。

A.诸侯恐惧,会盟而谋弱秦。()

B.吾已失恩义,会不相从许。()

C.迁客骚人,多会于此。()

D.长风破浪会有时。()

E.会魏永昌王以长安之众八万骑。()

F.会有客,不得言。()

G.杀耕牛,会众以赴之。()

H.留待作遗施,于今天会因。()

理解常见文言实词在文中的含义(答案)

1.本题主要考查学生对课文知识的掌握情况,所选例句均为经典篇目中的句子,设计本题的目的就是为了让学生重视经典文言文篇目,熟悉文中句子以及实词的用法。A、B、D三项均为正确解释,C项的“伐”与“此”呼应,在这里释为动词不通,应为名词“功业”。2.本题考查目的同上题一样。A项考查对偏义复词的理解,课文中这类词很多,《孔雀东南飞》中就不少,如“作息”、“公姥”、“父兄”、“弟兄”等,这类词是由两个意义相关或相反的语素构成,但整个复音词的意思只取其中一个语素的意义,而另一个语素意义虚化。不过,要注意的是,不是所有由这类方法构成的词都是偏义复词,“宠辱”在这里有“受宠和受辱”双重含义;B项根据原文信息可以得知,是司马迁对朋友的寒暄客气之词,朋友来信询问,释为“回答”才准确;C项释为“追逐”并不多见,但在此处是准确的;D项“速”用的是不常用义项“招致”,释为“加速”也是错误的。答案:C。3.此类题型高考中也有出现,让学生自己填写文言实词的意思,难度比单选题更大些,但是,只要我们平时关注课本,熟悉文本内容,是不难填写的。答案:(1)送信的人;(2)求取;(3)责备;(4)停止。4.此题考查学生对多义词词义的掌握情况,只要熟悉原文,不难作出准确解答。答案:(1)得到,获得;(2)心得,收获;(3)能够;(4)应该;(5)通“德”,感恩;(6)与“无”连用表示疑问,莫非;(7)得意;(8)具备;(9)融洽;(10)对、合适。5.本题考查的文言实词均常见,A项“贷”常用义项为“借贷”,如“庄周家贫,故往贷粟于监河侯”。但是用在这里解释不通,联系“原”的意思,结合“严惩不贷”中“贷”的义项,可以推断此处为“宽赦”之意。B项“次”为古今意义差别较大的词,但是其本义“临时驻扎和住宿”在文言文中却很常用,从语境分析,这个用法是正确的。C项“虑”是个形声字,与“心”有关,本义就是“思虑、谋划”之意,如果熟悉成语“不足为虑”的意思,也可以推知此项解释为正确。剩下的D项,“知”,常用义项是“知道”,又引申为“认识”、“了解”、“赏识”之意,从原文语境分析,释为“认识”显然不够,应该是“知遇”才对,所以,D项应释为“赏识”。答案:D。6.本题考查的文言实词也比较常见。A项根据后文“辄越屋逾墙,莫之能禽”的语境可以分析出,这里是用的“录”的另一个义项“拘捕”;B项中守门人到州府是去汇报情况,释为“拜访”也不准确,应为“前往”;C项“厉”当同“励”,释为“激励”符合语境;类似D项的句式在学过的课文中见过不少,应释为“距离”。7.本题考查的几个通假字非常常见,“反”通“返”;“禽”通“擒”;“裁”通“才”。只要认清迷惑项C项中“太半”的“太”不是“大”的通假,即可作出正确判断。8.考查学生对古今异义词的掌握情况,结合原文,结合这些词的今义,稍微分析即可作出正确选择。A项“无恙”一词古义和今义均为“平安无事”之意,今义其实是古义的沿用;B项“自修”在终身教育的今天,非常常见,是“自学”之意,文中意为“修身自励”;C项应当没有悬念,文中意为“总管统领”,今义为“一国首脑”;D项“收集”古义为“使聚集在一起”,从字面理解似乎讲得通,但是,今天的“收集”对象专指物。文中意为“收罗交结”。答案:A。9.考查学生在具体语境中对一词多义的把握,根据义项和例句,综合分析,不难作出选择。答案:A.④,B.②,C.④,D.②,E.③,F.③,G.④,H.①。

定语从句中只能用which的习题(要详细解释)!!!!

在英语学习过程中,你是否觉得枯燥乏味?那可能是你的学习方法需要改进哦。以下是我分享给大家的初中英语代词的用法,希望可以帮到你!

初中英语代词的用法

 (一)代词的类别

 相互代词 each other,one another

 指示代词 this,that,these,those

 不定代词(不指明特定的人或事物的代词)each,every,both,all,either,neither,none,no,one,(a)few,(a)little,some,any,many,much,other,another

 复合不定代词 everybody,somebody,anybody,nobody,everyone,someone,anyone,no one,every-thing,something,anything,nothing

 疑问代词 what,who,whom,which,whose

 直接代词 疑问代词都可作连接代词,引导宾语从句。表语从句等。

 关系代词 who,whom,whose,that,which用引导定语从句。

 (二)代词的用法

 1.人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词和指示代词的用法

 (1)人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格用来作主语,宾格用来作动词或介词的宾语等。

 eg. She gave me a red apple.她给了我一个红苹果: (She作主语,me作动词宾语)

 Kath is near him.凯西靠近他。(介词near的宾语)

 2.物主代词有形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词之分。

 ①形容词性物主代词位于名词前:their school,his backpack

 ②名词性物主代词相当干一个名词,在句中可作主语、宾语等,后面不能再接名词。

 egIt isn?t my pen.?Mine(=my pen) is missing.(作主语)

 I left my pen at home. You can use hers(=her pen),(作宾语)

 ③?of+名词性物主代词?属双重所有格的一种形式。

 eg.a cat of hers她的一条狗,a friend of yours你的一个朋友

 3.反身代词

 ①反身代词在句中可作同位语,起强调作用,也可作动词或介词的宾语。

 eg.A few days later,I myself had to go to Paris.(作同位语)

 She bought herself a new bag.(作动词宾语)

 He?s not worried about himself.(作介词宾语)

 ②带有反身代词的常用短语。

 teach oneself 自学

 help oneself to 随便吃些?吧

 say to oneself 自言自语。

 learn?by oneself 自学?

 enjoy oneself 过得愉快

 leave one by oneself 把某人单独留下

 hurt oneself 伤了自己

 dress oneself 自己穿衣服

 come to oneself 苏醒过来

 4.相互代词

 ①表示相互关系,可用作动词或介词的宾语,用法区别不大。

 eg. For years, the two sisters looked after one another(each other)。多年来姐妹俩互相照顾。

 We should learn from each other. 我们应当互相学习。

 ②可以用格表示所有关系:each other?s, one another?s互相的,彼此的

 eg.They are looking at each other?s pictures.他们相互看对方的照片。

 5.指示代词

 ①指示代词有单复数之分,既可指物,也可用于介绍人。

 eg. This is an apple tree,and that is an orange tree.这是一棵苹果树,那是一棵桔子树。

 These are my friends,and that is my sister.这些是我朋友,那个是我姐姐。

 ②指示代词可用来指上文中提到的事情:

 eg.Steve had a bad cold.This/That was why he didn?t come to school yesterday.

 2.不定代词

 (1)each,every,both,all,either,neither,no,none的用法

 ①each?每个/各个?(强调个体),用于两者或两者以上。

 eg.Two girls came and l gave an apple to each.来了俩姑娘,我给她们每人一个苹果。

 Each of them has a nice ring.她们每人有一枚漂亮的戒指。

 ②every?每个/各个?(强调全体),用于两者以上。every常作形容词用。

 eg.Every day is important to us.每天对我们都很重要。

 He has read every book(all the books) On the subject.他阅读了所有有关这个主题的书。

 ③both表示两者?都?(强调全体)。

 eg.Her parents are both doctors.她父母都是医生。

 Both of them are doctors.他俩都是医生。

 They both like potatoes.他俩喜欢吃土豆。

 ④all?全体/大家/一切?用于三者以上,也可接不可数名词。

 eg.That?s all for today.今天到此为止。

 All of us are from China.我们都来自中国。

 All the food is delicious.所有的食物都很好吃。

 ⑤either?两者之一?,用于两者(强调个体)。

 eg.The two coats are cheap,so you can choose either of them.那两件外套不贵,你可以随便挑一件。

 ⑥neither?两个都不?,用于否定两者。

 eg. Neither Of the books is/are so interesting.那两本书没一本好看的。

 ⑦no(=not any/not a)?没有?可接可数名词单复数,也可接不可数名词。

 eg.I have no brothers Or sisters.我没有兄弟姐妹。

 A clock has no mouth,but it can talk. 钟表没有嘴,但能说话。

 There is no fire without some smoke.有火就有烟。

 ⑧none?没有一个人/物?用于否定三者或三者以上的可数名词

 eg.None Of them has/have been to Japan.他们都没去过日本。

 I like none of the books.这些书我全都不喜欢。

 ⑨neither和none表示完全否定;all,both,each和every(含every的复合词)等与not连用时表示部分否定。

 eg.I don?t know all of you.我不完全认识你们。

 Not everyone Of us know how to go there.不是我们每个人都知道怎样去那儿。

 (2)one,ones和no one的用法

 one用来代替前面刚提到的一个东西或一个人,以免重复;复数ones用来代替前面提到的一些物或一些人;no one表示否定。

 eg.?Would you please pass me the science book?给我递过那本科学方面的书好吗?

 一Which one?哪一本?

 一The one on my shelf.我书架上的那本。

 No one has traveled farther than to the moon.没有人旅行远过月球。

 (3)(a)few,(a)little;many,much;some,any的用法

 ①many(+复数名词),much(+不可数名词)表示?许多/很多?。

 eg.Many Of the students come from England.那些学生许多是从英国来的。

 Thanks,it?s too much for me.谢谢,我承受不起。

 ②few(+复数名词),little(+不可数名词)表示?没多/很少?(表否定)。

 eg,There were few people in the street last night.昨晚街上没什么人。

 I am very worried that l have little time to finish the job.我担心,我几乎没有时间完成这份工作了。

 ③a few(+复数名词),a little(+不可数名词)表示?有一些/有几个?(表肯定)。

 eg.I call see a few cakes and a little bread inthe fridge.我看到冰箱里有几块蛋糕和一些面包。注意:quite a few表示?相当多?

 eg.There are quite a few students over there.那儿有相当多的学生。

 ④some(+复数名词/不可数名词),any(+复数名词/不可数名词)表示?有一些/有几个?(表肯定)。

 eg.There are some birds in the tree.树上有些鸟。

 There is some water in the bottle.瓶里有些水。

 I don?t have any brothers Of sisters.我没有

 Is there any tea in the cup?杯子里有茶吗?

 ⑤some一般用于肯定句,但在表示请求、建议。反问等的疑问句中,多用some.

 eg: Would you like some beer?你要不要来点啤酒吗?

 Why didn?t you buy some sweets?(You should have bought?)你怎么没买点糖果?

 ⑥any一般用于疑问句和否定句及条件从句

 eg.There isn?t any water left.没有剩下一点水。

 If you have any questions, put up your hands.please.如果有问题,请举手。

 ⑦some+单数名词表示?某一个?,any+单数名词表示?随便哪一个?或?任何一个?。

 eg.I?ll catch up with you some day有一天我会赶上你的。

 Come any day you like.你哪天来都行。

 Tom is taller than any other student in his class.汤姆比他班上其他任何一个学生都高。

 ④one ,other, others, the others ,another等的用法

学好英语的建议

 积累词汇

 如果你是学生,可以通过英语课程,让老师帮助你了解英语的基础知识和思维方式。如果你是自学者,可以通过网络视频,根据视频上的内容了解英语的基础知识等。并且需要购买一本中英的英语词典,让你在学习英语的前期掌握足够的英语词汇。

 学习语法

 语法是语言的?骨架?,是词形变化规则和组词成句规则的总和,也是研究词的结构、用词规则、组合词语、句子结构等一系列规律的专门科学。具有概括性、生成性、稳定性 和系统性的特点。学习语法的目的,是为了可以更好地进行听说读写等语言实践活动。也就是说,通过对语法规则规律的掌握,减少在语言实践练习中的盲目性,提高语言的准确性。学习语法可以通过课本、书籍、网络等方法加强练习。

 多读、多背、多写

 学好英语,还要有坚持不懈的精神,不经历背诵大量文章,写大量东西,听大量文章(读报、听广播、看外语**、听外语讲座、读书籍)是根本不可能达到目的的,因为学习语言需要对我们的各种感观进行刺激,每天至少看 60-120分钟的英语,早晨和晚上是学英语的最好时间。

 勇于交流

 前面3点可以让你很好的读和写了,但是只会读和写对于学习一门语言来说是远远不够的,我们还要学会怎样与人交流。敢于开口说英语,不要怕犯错误,人人都会犯错,这是在所难免的,加强交际训练,为自己提供一个英语环境,只有多交流,才能把口语说的很流利。

学习英语的技巧

 一、首先明确复习目的

 简言之,第一轮复习的?主要目的是基础能力过关?。目前,高考英语试题在重视英语基础知识的同时,突出对语言运用能力的考查,形成了以篇章阅读为主体的试题布局。高三复习的最终目的是提高考生的语言运用能力,但知识是能力的基础,对能力的测试必然要结合对知识的测试,这是对考生多年积累的、系统化的、活化的知识测试:大量的知识考查通过能力测试得以实现,熟练掌握英语基础知识正是为发展英语运用能力做准备。例如,在做?阅读理解?时,如果考生复习时没有熟练掌握英语基础知识,就理解不了解构复杂的句子,看不懂篇章内容,这又如何能正确地解答试题呢?同样,做?书面表达?试题时,如果没有一定量的词汇知识和语法知识,就谈不上正确的英语表达,怎么可能写出通顺的英语短文?

 因此,高三学生复习的最终目的是提高自己的语言运用能力,尤其是目前部分考生的英语知识还是零散的、孤立的,在英语能力还没有全面提高的情况下,英语的第一轮复习应侧重于形成系统的、完整的英语知识体系,打牢基础,有效全面地提高运用英语的能力。

 高三复习不应是对已学知识的简单重复和强化,而是一个再学习、再认识、提高理解能力和运用能力的过程,在短暂的高考复习中应该兼顾语言知识的掌握和语言能力的培养。

 二、紧跟教学掌握方法

 对于如何搞好英语一轮复习,李老师提出以下建议:

 抓课本、重基础、强化词句的积累

 英语基础知识的复习要以课本为纲,按照知识之间的内在联系,将它们进行分类整理。在这个过程中,要注意以新带旧,使初中和高中所学的知识形成系统,总结出规律性,这样才能融会贯通,也才能把知识转化为能力。

 考生应以高中课本为主要教材,在老师的带领下深入挖掘教材中的语言知识,巩固语言基础,对课本中反复出现的语言知识进行科学归类和巧妙整理,找出其中的规律、抓住线索。复习知识是为了运用知识,而网络化的知识更便于运用,更有利于学科能力的培养。考生只有经过对所学的教材进行层层挖掘才有希望把知识形成网络。这对其实现知识向能力的迁移有重要的影响,有利于实际运用能力的提高,并在应考中运用自如。

 考生要在老师的帮助下构建知识网络。在老师的帮助下,在认真学习和研究《考试说明》的基础上,按照知识的内在联系,将其要点进行分类整理(内容包括词汇、句型、语法、交际用语、篇章结构等方面),从而使六年所学的零散的、孤立的知识有机地结合起来,使已学知识网络化,形成一个完整的知识体系,从而摸索出带有规律性的东西。

 考生在使新旧知识网络化、系统化的过程中,应力争使知识以点带线、以线带面、以新带旧、以旧促新。深入挖掘课本中的经典词句,按照考纲的要求和考题的思路设置成练习题,既巩固重点语言知识,又能不断渗透高考试题的出题思路和解题技巧。二、抓语篇学习、重阅读能力

 从近几年来的高考试题来看,死记硬背,强化训练,沉湎于?题海战术?是难以出好成绩的。将中心和重心放在单项填空上是不合时宜的。因此,要根据自己的实际情况,也可请求老师的帮助,制定出切实可行的复习计划。做到按部就班,有条不紊,循序渐进。其中,语篇学习最应引起考生的足够重视。

 高中课本中文章题材广、内容新颖,知识覆盖面宽。因此,考生应充分利用高三课本中的阅读材料,从文章的内容、文章的结构、作者的观点、态度及相关的背景知识巧妙设置问题,不断提高自己的阅读能力,开拓知识视野。同时,文章的新颖内容还可以提高对英语的学习兴趣

 三、精选习题,有效训练

 复习中,首先应按照老师的节奏、充分有效地利用好课堂时间、提高听课的效率。对平时老师布置的作业要及时、认真完成,不浮躁。

 建议考生应有针对性地加强运用练习。通过结合高考考点进行针对性训练,在很短的时间内复习完所有的语言知识,提高复习效率,以便有充裕的时间进行听力、完形填空、阅读等专项能力训练和模拟训练,避免在复习课本知识和培养能力之间顾此失彼。在此基础上,通过科学系统的训练,提高英语交际能力,从而收到事半功倍的效果。

 考生选择的复习资料不宜过多、要精当、系统性好一些,必须是正规出版社出版的。如果辨别能力较差,可多咨询老师,请老师帮忙把关。此外,如果考生哪方面能力相对比较弱,可以有针对性地适当补充这方面的专项练习材料,所有的东西都应该是在完成老师规定的任务之后再做的。并且,练习中要注意几种题型的搭配。

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2. 初中生英语的优秀学习方法总结

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4. answer的用法与搭配归纳详解

5. 高考英语语法知识总结代词

求英语高考题精选15道

定语从句中只能用which的三种情况:

(1)紧跟在介词后面的关系代词用which。即“介词+which(代物)”。如:

I saw a desk on which there was a book.我看见一张桌子,上面有一本书。

注意:如果on调到句子后面,与which隔开,则which也可以换成that:

I saw a desk which/that there was a book on.

(2)在非限制性定语从句中只能用which。如:

She has a big house, which was painted white.她有一座大房子,房子漆成了白色。

(3)which后面有插入语时。如:

This is the gramma book which, as I have told you, will improve your English.这就是这本语法书,我告诉过你,它会提高你的英语水平。

这个知识点比较简单,没有必要专门弄出这类题的专项练习。你不如全面提高定语从句的语法知识。网上有很多定语从句的专项练习,你自己查一查吧。

祝你学习进步!

定语从句中where的用法

.(10福建25)

Lots of rescue workers were working around the clock, supplies to Yushu, Qinghai

Province after the earthquake.A. sending B. to send C. having sent D. to have sent答案:A

考点:非谓语动词

解析:表示伴随。从 “were working”可以判断是进行时态,排除C。

2.(10福建34)

In April, thousands of holidaymakers remained abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud.A. sticking B. stuck C. to be stuck D. to have stuck答案:B

考点:remain后接动词的用法

解析:remain是高考的重点词汇。当它做系动词时,后面接过去分词作表语。

3.(10上海33)

Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues with her stories.

A. amused B. amusing C. to amuse D. to be amused

答案:A

考点:本题考查非谓语动词。

解析:keep+sb. /sth. +done,根据句意,sb.与它后面的动词成被动关系,故选A.

4.(10上海35)

the city center, we saw a stone statue of about 10 meters in height.

A. Approaching B. Approached C. To approach D. To be approached

答案:A

考点:本题考查非谓语动词。

解析:考察现在分词作状语,表示正在进行或主动的动作。此时分词的逻辑主语就是主句的主语,因此要注意人称、时态和语态的一致性。

5. (10上海40)

Thai is the only way we can imagine the overuse of water in students' bathrooms.

A. reducing B. to reduce C. reduced D. reduce

答案:B

考点:此处考查非谓语动词。

解析:此处应该用不定式the way to do sth表示做……的途径、方式。the only way to do……,we can imagine 做定语,前面省略了that.

6.(10安徽30)

He had a wonderful childhood, _____with his mother to all corners of the world

A. travel B. to travel C. traveled D. traveling

答案:D.

考点:本题考查非谓语动词作状语。

解析:主语(he)与动词travel之间存在主动关系,故用traveling作原因状语。

7.(10湖南21)

Listen! Do you hear someone for help?

A. calling B. call C. to call D. called

答案:A

考点:考查非谓语动词。

解析:该空在句中为非谓语动词作宾补,根据 someone与call的主动关系排除D项。Hear

后接不定式作宾补时应省略to,由此排除C项。由Listen可判断此处表示正在求救,故

选A项。

8.(10湖南26)

Dina, for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency.

A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D. to struggle

答案:C

考点:考查非谓语动词。

解析:该空,分词短语作时间状语,其逻辑主语Dina与struggle为主动关系,故排除B项。由剧中的finally可知非谓语动词表示的动作发生在句中谓语took a position之前,故用现在分词的完成主动式。

9.(10湖南30)

So far nobody has claimed the money in the library.

A. discovered B. to be discovered

C. discovering D. having discovered

答案:A

考点:考查非谓语动词

解析:该空在句中作后置定语修饰the money,根据the money与discover的被动关系,排除C、D两项。B项表示的是“将要被发现”的意思,根据句意“到目前为止还没有人来认领在图书馆被发现的钱”可判断选A项。

10.(10江西24)

The lady walked around the shops, _______ an eye out for bargains.

A keep B kept C keeping D to keep

答案:C

考点:考察非谓语。

解析:句子主语lady和keep 之间是主动关系, 而且walk和keep 同时发生。

11.(10江西32)

There were many talented actors out there just waiting ______.

A to discover B to be discovered

C discovered D being discovered

答案:B.

考点:考察非谓语。

解析:演员等待被发现, 用被动, 发现发生在等待之后, 所以用不定式.

12.(10山东23)

I have a lot of readings _____ before the end of this term.

A. completing B. to complete

C. completed D. being completed

答案:B

考点:本题考查非谓语动词的使用。

解析:句意应为“这个学期结束前,我要做很多阅读练习。”由于时间状语before the end

of this term表达未来的时间,所以空格处使用动词不定式表示将来,充当readings的定

13. (10天津12)

It rained heavily in the south, serious flooding in several provinces.

A. caused B. having caused C. causing D. to cause

答案:C.

考点:考查非谓语动词。

句意:南方下了大雨,在几个省区造成严重洪灾。

解析:空格后serious flooding是rained heavily的后果,而且句子主语it和cause之间存在主动关系,所以此处要用动词的ing形式作结果状语

14.(10四川4)

A great number of students said they were forced to practise the piano.

A. to question B. to be questioned

C. questioned D. questioning

答案:C

考点:考查非谓语动词作定语。

解析: question与students 存在被动关系,question表示的动作也已完成,故用过去分

词。

15.(10四川17)

The lawyer listened with full attention, to miss any point.

A.not trying B.trying not

C.to try not D.not to try

答案:B考点:考查现在分词短语做伴随状语及动词不定式的否定式。

解析:句中listen和try not to miss为同时进行的动作,故用现在分词的一般式做伴随状语。又动词不定式的否定式要在其前加not.故选B。

定语从句确定关系词的方法: 1、从句成分完整,就用关系副词 2、从句成分不完整,就用关系代词。

 先行词表示地点,不一定都用Where引导定语从句

 一般来说,英语学习者的脑海中会形成这样一个概念:在定语从句中,如果先行词是表示地点的名词(如place等),就用关系副词where引导定语从句。这种理解有一定的道理,比如下面这个句子:

 1. If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy, tonight is your answer.

 如果还有人对美国是否是一个一切皆有可能的国家心存怀疑,还有人怀疑美国奠基者的梦想在我们所处的时代是否依然鲜活,还有人质疑我们的民主制度的力量,那么今晚,这些问题都有了答案。

 这句话节选自美国总统的胜选演说。我们看到,这里的place后面的定语从句是由关系副词where来引导。但是,如果认为只要先行词是表示地点的名词,则一定要用where来引导定语从句,那就大错特错了。比如,在2006年上海高考英语中有这样一道选择题:

 2. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach.

 A. where B. when C. which D. what

 我们看到,places在这里表示地点,但如果据此就认为空格处应填入where,那就错了。原因是什么呢?因为空格后接的是谓语would have taken,所以空格处待填入的关系词在从句中充当的应该是主语成分,而关系副词where不能作主语,因此,此处不能填入where。其实,该空格处应该填入which来充当主语,正确选项为C。

 由此可见,“当先行词是表示地点的名词时,要用where来引导定语从句”的说法是片面的,它忽略了一个大前提——关系副词where在定语从句中必须作状语。也就是说,用关系副词where引导定语从句需要满足两个前提条件:一是先行词是表示地点的名词;二是关系词在定语从句中作状语。因此,“先行词是表示地点的名词”与“用where引导定语从句”不可以互推,它们之间的关系如下图所示:

 先行词表示地点,如何判断是否使用Where引导定语从句

 当先行词表示地点时,如何判断是否应该使用where来引导定语从句呢?这就得分析定语从句的句法结构了。如果定语从句不缺少主语或宾语,而是缺少地点状语,便用where来引导;如果定语从句不缺少状语,而是缺少主语或宾语,则要用关系代词(which或that)来引导,以补足定语从句中所缺失的主语或宾语。请比较下例中的两个句子:

 3. a. This is the town which I wanted to visit most.

 这就是我曾经最想参观的城镇。

 b. This is the town where I was born.

 这就是我出生的城镇。

 在a和b两个句子里,尽管先行词都是表示地点的名词town,但引导定语从句的关系词却不同。在a句中,由于定语从句中谓语部分的动词visit缺少宾语,因此填入的关系词要充当它的宾语,故用关系代词which。在b句中,定语从句“I was born”不缺少主语和宾语,而是缺少地点状语,故用关系副词where,这里where充当地点状语,修饰was born。

 我们也可以用另一种方法来判断是否应该使用where引导定语从句:将包含定语从句的复合句还原成两个简单句,然后通过分析句子成分来进行判断。例如,我们把上面的a句与b句还原成两个简单句,得到的是:

 a. This is the town and I wanted to visit it most.

 b. This is the town and I was born there.

 在a句中,town被代词it替代后在visit后边充当宾语,所以改成定语从句时要用关系代词which来替换it,以充当定语从句的宾语;而在b句中,town变成了副词there,充当地点状语,修饰was born,所以改成定语从句时自然要用关系副词where来替换there,以充当地点状语。

 我们再来看其他相关例句,以便更加深入地理解where的用法:

 4. Literature is the place where the past meets the present to contemplate the future.

 在文学作品里,过去与现实交汇,以思考未来。

 这里,先行词place表示地点,而且定语从句中不缺少主语和宾语,需要的是一个地点状语修饰meets,因而,此处用where来引导定语从句。

 5. In fact, there are now so many deer that some are being sent to places which would like to return this kind of deer to the wild.

 事实上,现在鹿群数量过多,以至于有些鹿被送到能使其回到野外的一些地方。

 这句话中,先行词places是表示地点的名词,但是由于定语从句中缺少主语,所以我们用关系代词which来引导,而不使用关系副词where来引导。

 因此,在先行词是表示地点的名词的前提下,需要分析定语从句的句子成分才能断定是用什么关系词来引导。当定语从句缺乏状语时,用关系副词where来引导;如果从句缺少的是主语或宾语,则用which、that等关系代词引导。

 根据上文讲述的判断原理,在解这一类与定语从句相关的题目时,我们可以首先看先行词是否是表示地点的名词,然后再根据定语从句中缺少的成分来选择合适的引导词。为了让大家更加熟练地掌握这一考点,笔者再列一道例题,供大家实战演练。请看下面这道题:

 6. I’ve never been to Beijing, but it’s the place ____.

 A. where I’d like to visit B. in which I’d like to visit

 C. I most want to visitD. that I want to visit it most

 本题考查定语从句的关系词选择。首先我们先看先行词。先行词是表示地点的名词place,初步确定引导词在关系副词where和关系代词(which或that)中选择。然后我们再看从句所缺少的成分。这道题的从句“I’d like to visit/I most want to visit”所缺少的成分应该是宾语,因而不能使用关系副词where引导,需要用关系代词which或that引导。所以,首先排除A。B选项的in which是“介词+关系代词”的形式,其用法与关系副词一样,因而排除B。而D选项的that与it都是指代place,二者意义重复,因而也不正确。正确选项是C,这里相当于省略了关系词that或which。该句要表达的意思是:我从未到过北京,但北京却是我最想去的地方。

 用Where引导定语从句,先行词不一定都表示地点

 按照通常的理解,当where引导定语从句时,它的先行词就是表示地点的名词,但事实并不是我们想象的那么简单。很多情况下,where所指代的先行词并不表示地点。请看以下几个例句:

 1. Remember that the best relationship is one where your love for each other is greater than your need for each other.

 请记住,最深的感情关系表现为彼此间的爱超过彼此间的'需要。

 点评:这里where引导的定语从句修饰先行词one,也就是relationship (此处one指代的是relationship)。Relationship不是地点名词,但此处却用了where来引导,where在这里表示“在这样的感情关系下”。从定语从句的结构来看,定语从句不缺主语和宾语,引导词where在从句中充当的是状语。

 2. Cheating is most likely in situations where the vital interests are high and the chances of getting caught are low.

 欺诈行为在这种情况下最有可能发生:利益重大,而且欺诈行为被发现的可能性小。

 点评:句中的先行词是situations,表示“情形,情况”,引导词依然用的是where,表示“在这种情况之下”。这里的定语从句也是不缺主语或宾语的,where在从句中充当的是状语。

 3. Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more “unnatural food”.

 除非人类能够意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度——使地球能为所有人提供足够的食物,否则人们将不得不接受更多的“人造食品”。

 点评:这里的先行词是point,表示“某种程度,某种状况”,引导词where指代point,表示“在这种程度之下”。这里定语从句也是不缺主语和宾语的,where在从句中充当的仍然是状语。

 从上面四个例句中,我们可以发现以下两点:第一,即使先行词不是表示地点的词,定语从句也能够使用关系副词where来引导;第二,上面三个例句中,where分别指代relationship、situation和point,分别表示“在……关系中”“在……情况下”“达到……程度”,这些词虽然不是表示地点的名词,但在从句中表达的是“某个点或状态”的含义。我们可以把这类名词解释成“含有抽象地点意义的名词”,此类词也能用关系副词where来进行引导。

 先行词不表示地点时,如何判断是否使用Where引导定语从句

 当先行词不是表示地点的名词时,该如何判断是否使用where引导定语从句呢?由上文给出的例句可知,含有抽象地点意义的名词能用关系副词where来引导,并且在每个例句的点评中笔者都反复强调“定语从句不缺主语和宾语,where在从句中充当的是状语”。由此,我们可以大胆地进行引申和归纳,提出“当先行词不表示地点时,使用where引导定语从句”的判断方法。首先,判断定语从句的结构:定语从句应该不缺少主语和宾语,而是缺少状语。其次,观察先行词:先行词是除了时间名词(在这种情况下会用when)和原因名词(在这种情况下会用why)以外的其他任何名词。第二个条件之所以成立,是因为定语从句中的状语成分一般就是由when、where和why等三个引导词来引导的。为了更深刻地理解这种判断方法,请看以下几个例句:

 4. English is a “fixed-word-order” language where each phrase has a fixed position.

 英语是一种“词序固定”的语言,这种语言的特点就是每个短语都有固定的位置。

 点评:首先,我们来判断定语从句“each phrase has a fixed position”的结构:该从句并不缺少主语和宾语,但是缺少状语。其次,我们来看先行词:先行词是fixed-word-order language, 它既不表示时间,也不表示原因。由此可知,此处用where来指代先行词,表示“在‘词序固定’这样的语言中”。

 5. At the Academy, Plato taught the students through the use of debates, where two or more people took different ideas of an argument.

 在学院里,柏拉图采用的教学方法是组织辩论,在辩论中,两个或多个学生各持一方观点。

 点评:首先,我们来判断定语从句“two or more people took different ideas of an argument”的句子结构:该从句不缺少主语和宾语,但是缺少状语。其次,我们来看先行词:先行词是debates,它既不是时间名词,也不是原因名词。由此可知,此处应用where引导定语从句,表示“在辩论中”。

 6. However, being enthusiastic isn’t for everyone and no one likes false enthusiasm, where a person pretends to be excited even about the most trivial points.

 然而,热情并非适合每一个人,而且也没有人喜欢那种连区区小事都假装兴奋不已的虚假热情。

 点评:首先,我们判断定语从句“a person pretends to be excited even about the most trivial points”的句子结构:该从句不缺少主语和宾语,但是缺少状语。其次,我们来看先行词:先行词是false enthusiasm,它既不是时间名词,也不是原因名词。因而,此处用where来引导定语从句,表示“在‘虚假的热情’这种状态下”。

高中宾语从句详细用法和高考宾语从句专项练习

基本上正确,但做题方法应了解一些。看到不及物动词就选关系副词。关于关系代词等掌握一些方法。高考网首页| 2011高考| 招生信息| 高考总复习| 自主招生| 高一年级| 高二年级| 高中试题| 高中课件| 高中教案| 电子教材| 志愿填报| 大学分数 . 高考 > 高考总复习 > 高考英语知识点 > 正文 高三英语语法复习专题—定语从句来源:本站原创 2009-02-27 13:31:44

[标签:语法 复习 高三 英语]一、考点聚焦

1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语

2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后

Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please.

3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词

(1)先行词一般是名词和不定代词,如:some-, any-, every-和no与-boy, -thing的合成词;或all、none、any、some、that、those等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作先行词。

(2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点:

①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。

This is the place which is worth visiting.

②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重复其意。

There are many places we can visit(them)in China.

4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词

关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。

关系副词:when, where, why。that偶尔也作关系副词。

5、确定关系词的步骤

(1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。

(2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。

6、在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用that而不用which

(1)先行词被①形容词最高级 ②序数词 ③数词几种词修饰或被 ④only、any、few、little、no、all、one of等修饰时。

(2)先行词为all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything等不定代词时。

(3)先行词中既有人又有物时。

He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus.

(4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。

The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago.

(5)当主句中含有疑问词which时。

Which are the books that you bought for me ?

7、宜用which而不用that的情况

(1)在非限制性定语从句中

(2)在关系词前有介词时

(3)当先行词本身是that时

(4)当关系词离先行词较远时

8、关系词who与that指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词

(1)当主句是there be句型时,关系词用who。

(2)先行词是为anyone、those、someone、everyone、one等词时,关系词用who。

(3)当主句是who作疑问词时,关系词用that。

Who is that girl that is standing by the window?

(4)whom在从句中只作宾语,可被who取代。

9、whose作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如:

Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving ?

There is a room, whose window faces the river.

There is a room, the window of which faces the river.

10、关系代词as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。

(1)先行词被such和the same修饰,或句型as many(much)中,从句都用as 引导。

Such books as you bought are useful.

The school is just the same as it was 10 years age.

注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such

lovely children that we love them much.②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now.

(2)无先行词的定语从句用as和which引导。

区别:①意义上:as 含有“这点正如……一样”。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可在另处。

He didn’t pass the exam, as we had expected.

There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out.

As is known, the earth is round, not flat.

11、关系副词when与where、why、that

when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which

where指地点 = in / at / from / which

why指原因 = for which

当先行词为way、day、reason、time时,可用that作关系副词。(非正式场合)

I don’t like the way that / in which / he talks.

当time作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。

This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.

12、必须注意的问题

(1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。

(2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。

①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。

②强调it无意义,that / who不是引导词。

③强调it is / was和that / who后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。

It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句)

It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句)

(3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。

①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。

②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that不能充当任何成分,不可省。

Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)

We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语)

(4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。

①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。

②关系词作表语。

(5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。

(6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是which和whom。

(7)几个特殊的定语从句句型:

①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks

in the match.(句中one为先行词)

He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中students为先行词)

②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday?

Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ?

③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening.

④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.

终于打完了

你好。

定语从句专项练习题及详解50题

1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace.

A. Which B. where C. what D. in which

2.Do you know the man _______?

A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke

3.This is the hotel _______last month.

A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed

C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed

4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

A. which B. that C. when D. on which

5.That is the day ______I'll never forget.

A. which B. on which C. in which D. when

6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here.

A. where B. to which C. which D. in which

7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

A. where B. that C. which D. there

8.This is one of the best films _______.

A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown

C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked

9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day?

A. about which you talked B. which you talked

C. about that you talked D. that you talked

10.The pen ______he is writing is mine.

A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which

11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy.

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old.

A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom

13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country?

A. who B. who's C. which D. whose

14.I'm interested in ______you have said.

A. all that B. all what C. that D. which

15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday.

A. which B. who C. what D. as

16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be.

A. who B. whom C. that D. as

17.He is good at English, ______we all know.

A. that B. as C. whom D. what

18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much.

A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him

19.I don't like ______ as you read.

A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels

20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school.

A. which B. that C. whom D. what

21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing.

A. which B. that C. whom D. who

22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women.

A. them B. which C. whom D. who

23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it.

A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who

24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now.

A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that

25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world.

A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what

26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV.

A. that B. which C. as D. it

27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.

A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when

28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong.

A. which B. whose C. what D./

29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting.

A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which

30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly.

A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after

C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after

31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill.

A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what

32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam.

A.that B.which C.for which D.who

33.That is not the way ______I do it.

A./ B.which C.for which D.with which

34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use.

A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which

35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago.

A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which

36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them.

A. who B. which C. that D. it

37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph.

A. that B. which C. from that D. from which

38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done.

A. that B. which C. who D. as

39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes.

A. / B. why C. when D. whose

40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.

A. that B. which C. it D. though

41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened?

--- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew.

A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that

42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with

the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life.

A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which

43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing.

A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are

44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns.

A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed

45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn?

A. that B. / C. which D. it

46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house.

A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that

47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week?

A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where

48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected.

A. as B. that C. what D. who

49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well.

A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which

50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up.

A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been

参考答案及解析

1. A. which用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。

2.C. "和谁讲话”要说speak to sb. 本题全句应为Do you know the man whom I spoke to.。whom是关系代词,作介词to的宾语,可以省略。

3. D. where是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

4. C. when是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。

5.A. which是关系代词,在从句中作forget的宾语。其他几个答案都不能作宾语。

6.C. 解析同第5题。

7. A. 解析见第3题。

8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是films,因此,关系代词that是负数概念,其谓语动词应用复述的被动语态have been shown。如果句中的one前面使用了定冠词the,则the one应该视为先行词。

9. A. “谈到某事物”应说talk about sth.。about是介词,其后要用which作宾语,不能用that。

10. A. with which是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with有"用"的意思,介词之后只能用which,不能用that. with which在定语从句中作状语,即he is writing with a pen.

11. C. in front of which 即in front of a farmhouse. In front of which在从句中作状语.

12. D. with whom引导定语从句.with whom放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer.

13. D. whose引导定语从句,在从句中作主语family的定语.

14. A. that引导定语从句,因为先行词是all,所以只能选用that引导.

15. D. the same……..as是固定用法, as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话中,as作从句的主语.

16. D. such……… as是固定用法,as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as作表语.

17. B. as作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句。这时as所指代的不是主句中某个名词,而往往指代整个主句的含义。as在从句中可以作主语、宾语。从句可放在主句后,也可置于主句前。在本句中,as作宾语.

18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much是主句,with whom I went to the concert是定语从句.with whom放在从句中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming.

19. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。 as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。Such修饰单数名词时,要用such a……..,本题中such books, such直接修饰复数名词.

20. B. things和persons是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时,其关系代词要用that.

21. D. who引导非限制性定语从句,who作从句的主语.

22. C. two thirds of whom 即:two thirds of the 2,000 workers.

23. D. 先行词person后有两个定语从句,第一个从句省略了关系代词whom.因为, whom作从句中met的宾语,可以省略.第二个从句who could do it.who在从句中作主语,不可省略.

24. A. whose title引导非限制性定语从句,whose title也可以说成the title of which

25. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for "以……..而闻名".

26. C. 当先行词被such修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词要用as. As在本从句中作主语.

27. A. 两个先行词the day都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状语,因此要用关系副词when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词spent的宾语,因此要用关系代词which或that来引导定语从句.

28. D. 在way、distance、direction等词后的定语从句中,常用that来代替“in (或其他介词)+which”、when或where,而that常可省略。

29. D. for which在定语从句中作原因状语,可用why 来替代.

30. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句.

31. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的why和that不能随意换位,也不能将that改成because,尽管that这个词在译文中可能有 “因为”的含义。

32. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

33. A. 解释见28题.

34. D. 主句中的two表明不能选A.从句中的are表明不能选B. both of which用来引导非限制性定语从句.

35. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。本题中as作从句的主语.

36. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

37. D.

38. D. 解析见35题.

39. A. he makes是定语从句, 从句前省略了关系代词that.

40. B. which is a bad habit 非限制性定语从句.

41. A. what happened是宾语从句. all 之后that he knew是定语从句.先行词是all,所以关系代词只能用that.

42. D. years是表示时间的名词,用when引导定语从句,是因为when在从句中作时间状语.第二个空选用which,引导一个非限制性定语从句.

43. C. 本句话的定语从句是who own cars. 其先行词是people,因此,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数的own。本句话主句的主语是The number of指“…..的数目”,是单数概念。因此,主句的谓语动词要用is。

44. D. that followed是定语从句,关系代词that在从句中作主语。

45. A. 先行词gas被only修饰,关系代词要用that,而不用which。

46. B. through which引导定语从句,through which即through the hole,在定语从句中作状语。What引导的是see的宾语从句,并作从句的主语。

47. B. 为便于理解,改写本句话:This is the school that some Germanfriends visited last week. 不难看出,作表语的the school是先行词。that引导了定语从句,因为that同时又作visited的宾语,所以被省略了。其它选项结构不对。

48. A. 解释见35题。

49. C. 因为是two ballpens, 并且定语从句的谓语writes是单数概念。因此,C是正确选项。

50. B. 本句话中,主句的主语是all,为抽象概念。因此,其谓语应用单数的has been。关系代词that引导定语从句,并在从句中作主语。

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